I recently read Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman (2011).
This is one of the best books I've read in the last 10 years. DK is a Nobel Prize winner for research in the field of economics (though he's a psychologist by trade).
In this work, DK describes how our brains come to the conclusions they do, as often as not completely outside our awareness. He depicts what he calls our "System 1" brain, the intuitive brain that takes in vast amounts of data in microseconds and launches us to a decision or action in a heartbeat. DK also fully describes our "System 2" brain, the much more deliberative, reflective, and analytical of our cognitive tool chest.
Well written, this book is a great resource for any of us who want a deeper understanding of how we humans make decisions, come to conclusions, and can influence (or be influenced). An excellent read for parents, writers, leaders, gamblers, car buyers, and advertising targets (that just about covers us all, I think).
This one goes on the top shelf, for much future reference. Thanks for the recommendation DP and TM.